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Retaliation is a significant issue employees can face in the workplace.  Unlawful retaliation is addressed by the Texas Labor Code and various federal laws, including the the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII), the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), and the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA).  Our experienced Dallas employment law team can explain the concept and its significance in cases involving retaliation. 

Unlawful retaliation refers to any adverse action taken by an employer against an employee because of their engagement in protected activity. Employment law generally prohibits retaliation against individuals who assert their rights or oppose unlawful employment practices, including discrimination based on race, color, national origin, sex, religion, or disability.  

Proving Unlawful Retaliation

To establish unlawful retaliation under the Civil Rights Act, the following elements need to be demonstrated:

  • The employee engaged in protected activity (such as filing a complaint or opposing discriminatory practices).
  • The employer took an adverse action against the employee (directly or indirectly) in response to the protected activity.
  • There is a causal link between the protected activity and the adverse action, indicating that retaliation was the motive behind the employer's actions.

It is important to note that retaliation claims require careful examination of the specific circumstances and evidence to determine if a violation has occurred. Seeking legal advice from an experienced employment attorney can help individuals navigate the process and protect their rights

Protected Activity

Protected activity refers to actions taken by an individual to assert their rights or oppose discriminatory practices in the workplace. Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Texas Labor Code, protected activities include:

  • Filing a complaint or charge of discrimination
  • Participating in an investigation or legal proceeding related to discrimination
  • Opposing discriminatory practices, such as making internal complaints or providing witness testimony
  • Requesting accommodation for a disability or religious belief (federal law only)

Proving a Causal Link

To prove retaliation, it is crucial to establish a causal link between the protected activity and the adverse employment action taken against the individual. The following factors can help demonstrate this connection:

  • Timing: If the adverse action occurs shortly after the protected activity, it can be considered evidence of retaliation. However, temporal proximity alone may not be sufficient to establish causation.
  • Comparative Evidence: Showing that similarly situated employees who did not engage in protected activity did not face similar adverse employment actions can strengthen the case.
  • Direct Evidence: Any direct evidence, such as explicit statements or documentation, indicating retaliatory motives, can be compelling in proving a causal link.

Temporal proximity refers to the closeness in time between the protected activity and the adverse employment action. While temporal proximity alone is not conclusive evidence of retaliation, it can be used as a supporting factor.

Ultimate Employment Decisions

Retaliation can manifest in various forms, including adverse employment decisions that negatively impact an individual's terms and conditions of employment. These decisions can include:

  • Termination or firing
  • Demotion or reduction in pay
  • Transfer to a less desirable position
  • Exclusion from training or promotion opportunities
  • Negative performance evaluations without proper justification


In the context of retaliation claims under Title VII and the Texas Labor Code, "pretext" refers to a situation where an employer provides a false or misleading reason for taking an adverse employment action against an employee. It means that the employer is using a cover-up or excuse to hide the fact that the real reason for the action was retaliation for the employee's protected activity, such as filing a complaint or opposing discrimination.

To put it simply, pretext means that the employer is making up a different reason for their actions, rather than being honest about their true intention to retaliate against the employee. It's like a smokescreen or a false front that the employer uses to try to justify their actions.

In retaliation claims, it is important for the employee to show that the reason provided by the employer is not the true reason, but rather a pretext. To establish pretext, the employee may need to present evidence that the employer's explanation doesn't make sense or is inconsistent with the facts, or that other employees who engaged in similar behavior didn't face similar adverse actions. By demonstrating pretext, the employee can strengthen their case and show that the employer's actions were actually motivated by retaliation rather than a legitimate business reason.

Overall, pretext refers to the employer's attempt to mask their true retaliatory motives by providing a false reason for their adverse employment actions against an employee.

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Javier Perez Law is committed to restoring the dignity of workers and standing against discrimination, harassment, retaliation, and wage and hour violations.

Please contact us today to discuss your legal matter. All calls are confidential and we will work with you to find your best path forward.